How to Live Longer: Supplements Taken By Biohackers to Increase Longevity

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2013
Supplements Taken By Biohackers to Increase Longevity

Article at a Glance:

  • Health supplements are a billion dollar industry. With thousands of supplements that all claim to work, only a few of them may actually have real benefits on your health and longevity.
  • Taking the right scientifically-backed supplements can really improve your chances of living longer. Some of these benefits include preventing heart failure, cancer, age-related diseases, and lowering your risk of death.
  • We made a list of 10 science-backed supplements to help guide you: 1) Vitamin D, 2) Magnesium, 3) Zinc, 4) B Vitamins, 5) COQ10, 6) Vitamin K2, 7) Vitamin A, 8) Omega-3 Fish Oil, 9) Resveratrol, and 10) Multivitamins. With bonus longevity drugs, Metformin and Rapamycin
  • The top 3 supplements taken by biohackers and supported by strong scientific evidence are Vitamin D, Zinc, and Magnesium.

The global supplement market is a $132.8 billion industry.[1] With over 85,000 supplements[2] claiming to improve your health, it’s hard to know which ones actually help you live longer and healthier and which ones have little impact.

Taking supplements to help you live longer isn’t exactly new. Among popular biohackers, there’s futurist Ray Kurzweil who takes 100 pills a day to reach the ‘singularity’[3], and others like Tim Ferriss, Steve Fowkes, and Dr. Peter Attia, who only suggest a handful of selected supplements. 
The right scientifically-backed supplements have plenty of benefits, which include helping prevent heart disease, cancer, and lowering your risk of death. Therefore, supplements are an essential piece of the toolkit if you want to increase your health and lifespan. 

To help you get started biohacking your health and longevity, we built a list of the top 10 supplements recommended by popular biohackers and supported by scientific research.

10 Science-Backed Supplements to Help Improve Your Longevity

1. Vitamin D (Highly Suggested)

4/5 on the Certainty Scale

Boosts immunity, helps prevent age-related diseases

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity- Vitamin D

One of the most popular and widely accepted supplements that can help you improve health and live longer is vitamin D. People don’t get enough vitamin D from sunlight because of spending a lot of time indoors and living in places with low sunshine duration. Optimum vitamin D levels may provide these longevity benefits:

  • Lowers the risk of death from heart disease by 30%[4][5
  • Boosts immunity[6][7] – Avoid flu and fight infections 
  • May prevent cancer[8][9]
  • Can reverse heart disease[10]
  • Prevents and treats osteoporosis[11]
  • Prevents and treats multiple sclerosis[12
  • May prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease[13]

Vitamin D is one of the most highly recommended supplement from popular biohackers, including Ray Kurzweil[14], Dave Asprey[15], Steve Fowkes[16], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[17], and Dr. Dominic D’Agostino[18]. It’s generally believed by biohackers that most people can’t get enough Vitamin D in their diet alone. There are also many studies that confirm the benefits of vitamin D, which is why it’s a 4 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale. To find out your current Vitamin D levels, 25-hydroxy vitamin D blood test is the most accurate way to measure it.

Vitamin D Dosage: The daily recommend vitamin D intake is between 10-20 mcg/day (400-800 IU/day) with the safe Upper Limit Intake Level(UL) of 100 mcg/day(4000 IU/day), according to the National Institutes of Health.[19

2. Magnesium (Highly Suggested)

4/5 on the Certainty Scale

Prevents chronic inflammation, a driving factor for aging and disease

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Magnesium

Another common nutrient deficiency is lack of magnesium. Around 50% of people in the U.S. and Europe don’t get the recommended daily intake.[20][21] Most people don’t get enough magnesium because of the typical Western diet, which has refined grains and processed food. Multiple studies show taking magnesium prevents chronic inflammation—which is considered a driving force for aging, obesity, and chronic diseases.[22][23] Here are other notable benefits of magnesium:

  • Helps reduce all-cause mortality by 10%[24]
  • Reduces risk of stroke and heart failure death[24]
  • Lowers blood sugar – Reduces risk of type 2 diabetes[25]
  • Reduces risk of insulin resistance[25]
  • Maintains healthy brain function[26]
  • Helps lower blood pressure[27]
  • Helps prevent migraines[28]
  • Improves sleep in insomniacs[29]

Top biohackers who take magnesium supplements or suggest it include Tim Ferriss[30], Dr. Peter Attia[31], Steve Fowkes[12], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[13], Dr. Dominic D’Agostino[32], and Dave Asprey[11]. Lots of research supports the benefits of magnesium, which is why we gave it 4 out of 5 on our certainty scale.

Magnesium Dosage: The daily recommended intake is 400-420 mg/day for men and 310-320 mg/day for women. Do not exceed the Upper Intake Level(UL) of 350 mg/day to avoid toxicity, according to the National Institutes of Health.[33

3. Zinc (Highly Suggested)

4/5 on the Certainty Scale

Reduces oxidative stress that speeds up aging, helps increase longevity

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Zinc

Another must-have vitamin on your list is zinc, which is a cornerstone for numerous cellular processes. Zinc is vital for reducing oxidative stress and preventing age-related diseases. One lab study, where organisms’ zinc levels were manipulated, showed that optimum zinc levels directly helped increase longevity in fruit flies and yeast cells.[34] Zinc helps increase longevity by fighting off infections and diseases,improving sleep, muscle recovery, relieving stress, and other benefits including:

  • Decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation[35][36
  • Helps reduce the length of the common cold by 33%[37]
  • Helps relieves stress and improve influenza vaccination response[38]
  • Boosts the immune system[39]
  • Helps speed up wound healing[40]
  • Boosts mental performance[41]
  • Helps lower the risk of pneumonia[42]
  • Helps prevent Alzheimer’s disease[43]
  • Helps lower the risk of heart disease[44]
  • May halt the growth of cancer cells[45]

Notable biohackers who reap the benefits of zinc include Tim Ferriss[30], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[46], Dave Asprey[15], and “The Ice Man”Wim Hof[47].  We gave zinc a 4 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale because of numerous research that show proof of its benefits.

Zinc Dosage: The daily recommended intake is 11 mg/day for men, and 8 mg/day for women. Do not take more than the Upper Intake Level(UL)of 40 mg/day for your safety, according to the Nat’l, Institutes of Health.[48]

4. B Vitamins (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Boosts energy, helps slow aging, supports brain and heart health

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - B Vitamins

Most people who take supplements know that Vitamin B is valuable for preventing infections, boosting your energy, keeping your heart and brain in top shape, and in general warding off aging. A 2018 study even showed that NIAGEN, a type of B-3 supplement, increased a key enzyme called NAD+ in our cells, which possibly slows the effects of aging.[49] However, some conflicting research says B vitamins cannot prevent stroke[50], but there’s still compelling evidence it’s good for the heart.[51] Due to this conflicting evidence and others[52], B vitamins only scores 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Still, many  biohackers swear by B vitamins including Ray Kurzweil[14], Steve Fowkes[16], Dave Asprey[15], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[17], Dr. Peter Attia[53], Beth Greer[54], and Wim Hof[47]. Commonly studied ways B vitamins may help improve health include:

  • B-6, B-12, folate – Reduces inflammation[55][56]
  • Folate and B-6 – Helps prevent strokes[57]
  • B-6, B-12, folic acid – Reduces risk of heart disease[58]
  • B-12 helps prevent cognitive decline and dementia[59
  • Nicotinamide riboside(B-3) repairs DNA damaged by Alzheimer’s[60]
  • B-6, B-12, folic acid – Lowers risk of age-related blindness[61]
  • B-1, B-6, B-12 – Prevents/treats peripheral neuropathy[62

Dosage for B Vitamins: The Tolerable Upper Limit Intake is not established for all B vitamins. But the Upper Limit Intake is 35 mg for B-3, 100 mcg for B-6, and 1,000 mcg for folic acid.[63] To know the recommended daily intake for B vitamins[64], see the table below:

B Vitamins Recommended Daily Intake

 

5. COQ10 (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Boosts immunity, protects heart health, prevents mitochondrial death

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - COQ10 Ray Kurzweil

Coenzyme Q10 is another powerful compound that helps you fight oxidative stress, strengthens your immune system, and protects heart health. A lab study has shown that COQ10 can help slow down aging and prolong the lifespan of C. elegans worms.[65] However, some conflicting studies argue it may not do much for cardiovascular health[66][67], which makes it a 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale. 

Still, notable biohackers have talked about its benefits, including Ray Kurzweil[14], Tim Ferriss[68], and Dr. Rhonda Patrick[69]. COQ10 generally decreases as you age, but you can order a COQ10 blood test to know your current levels. Here are more ways COQ10 may help improve your health:

  • Reverses mitochondrial dysfunction, prevents cell death[70][71
  • Protects cell membranes from oxidative damage[72]
  • Boosts the immune system to fight infections[73]
  • Reduces inflammation to prevent chronic diseases[74]
  • Helps lower blood pressure without significant side effects[75]
  • Helps lowers risk of death from heart problems[76]
  • Helps prevent and treat heart failure[77][78
  • Lowers blood sugar – prevents and treats diabetes[79]

COQ10 Dosage: According to WebMD, there is no established dose and tolerable upper limit intake for COQ10.[80] However, the typical COQ10 dosage is 90–200 mg/day. Depending on your condition, the doctor’s dosage can range from 300-600 mg/day.[81

6. Vitamin K2 (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Essential for heart health and strong bones, helps reduce risk of death

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Vitamin K2

Vitamin K2 may improve your longevity, with a study that shows it helps lower all-cause mortality by 26%.[82] It’s essential for heart health, helps prevent certain cancers, and ensures strong bones as you age. It’s so effective that Japan officially recommends it to prevent osteoporosis.[83] However, more research on heart and cancer treatment are needed to study K2’s effects. This gives it a 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Still, well-known biohackers like Dave Asprey[15], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[84], and Ben Greenfield[85] take and suggest vitamin K2. It’s even known to help increase performance in athletes.[85] Vitamin K2 tests are not widely available, so ask your doctor for help to know your current levels. Vitamin K2 may also provide the following benefits:

  • Helps reduce risk of heart disease death by 57%[86]
  • Lowers risk of heart disease in women by 9%[87]
  • Helps prevent and treat osteoporosis[88]
  • Helps reduce hip fractures by 77%, non-spinal fractures by 81%[89
  • Activates proteins for blood clotting[90]
  • Helps lowers the risk of advanced prostate cancer by 63%[91
  • Helps reduce recurrence of liver cancer, improves survival[92][93]

Vitamin K2 Dosage: The Food and Nutrition Board established Adequate Intakes(AI) for vitamin K, which is 120 mcg for men, and 90 mcg for women.[94] There is currently no recommended daily intake, and no safe upper limit intake yet for vitamin K2.

7. Vitamin A (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Vital for strong immune function and brain health, may help treat cancer

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Vitamin A

Optimum vitamin A levels help boost your immune system and facilitates wound healing. It may help prevent  cancer, and is important for healthy brain function as you age. One study shows giving adequate vitamin A to fruit flies increased its median lifespan by 17.5%.[95] However, one study found too much vitamin A can disrupt immune function.[96] Due to this, we gave vitamin A a 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale. Make sure to get a vitamin A(Retinol) test to measure your levels before taking supplements. 

Biohackers who stress the importance of vitamin A include Dave Asprey[15], Wim Hof[47], and neurosurgeon and Optimized Life CEO, Dr. Jack Kruse[97]. It’s also known to help boost brain health, maintain cognitive function, and optimize learning.[98] Other benefits of vitamin A include:

  • Helps boost the immune system, prevents inflammation[99][100]
  • Essential for wound healing, helps prevent infections[101][102]
  • Helps preserve cognitive function in adults[98]
  • Can delay the progression of multiple sclerosis[103]
  • Helps improve symptoms of fatigue and depression[104]
  • Helps reduce risk of  macular degeneration by 25%[105]
  • Retinol may help prevent and treat cancer[106]
  • Helps inhibit growth of cancer tumors[107][108

Vitamin A Dosage: The recommended daily intake for vitamin A is 900 mcg for men, and 700 mcg for women. The tolerable upper limit intake for vitamin A is 3,000 mcg/day, according to the National Institutes of Health.[109]

8. Omega-3 Fish Oil (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Reduces inflammation, helps prevent age-related diseases, supports heart health

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Fish Oil

A 16-year study of adults aged 69-79 showed higher omega-3 levels helped reduce risk of death by 27%.[110] Fish oil (with EPA and DHA) helps lower the risk of age-related inflammatory disorders and supports heart health. However, there’s conflicting studies that say fish oil supplements do not do much to prevent heart disease or cancer.[111][112] Because of this, we gave fish oil a 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Still, respected biohackers like Ray Kurzweil[14], Dr. Peter Attia[113], Tim Ferriss[114],Dave Asprey[15], and Dr. Rhonda Patrick[17] take fish oil or mention its benefits. Dave Asprey recommends fish krill oil to avoid mercury in larger fish, and Dr. Peter Attia suggests high-quality fish oil in liquid form for better absorption. To measure your current omega-3 levels, you can use omega-3 testing kits. Here are more ways fish oil supplements may help improve your health:

  • Helps reduce risks associated with heart disease[115][116]
  • Helps lower high blood pressure[117][118]
  • Reduces chronic inflammation[119][120]
  • Helps lower the risk of unhealthy aging by 18%[121
  • Helps improve symptoms of depression[122][123]
  • Helps reduce cancer tumor size, enhances chemo drugs[124]
  • May prevent breast cancer[125][124]
  • May reduce liver fat and improve liver function[126][127]

Omega-3 Fish Oil Dosage: The Food and Nutrition Board established Adequate Intake(AI) levels: 1.6 g for men, and 1.1 g for women.[128] Moreover, according to the American Heart Association, taking higher doses of up to 3 g of fish oil/day is considered safe.[129

9. Resveratrol (Moderately Suggested)

3/5 on the Certainty Scale

Can help fight aging, helps stave off age-related diseases

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Resveratrol

Resveratrol is a plant compound (also found in red wine) which affects the activity of sirtuins, proteins that control biological pathways for aging.[130] Research shows it can activate the production of SIRT1, the body’s survival mechanism which extends life.[131] It has also lengthened the lifespan of worms and fish by 60%.[132] However, dosage is an issue, with most resveratrol pills having much lower amounts than what’s shown to have beneficial effects in research.[133] This gives it a 3 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Despite this drawback, biohackers still take resveratrol or mention its benefits, including Ray Kurzweil[14], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[134][135], and Harvard Medical School Professor of Genetics, Dr. David Sinclair[136][137]. Dr. Sinclair is the forerunner of resveratrol research and the leading scientist who found the link between sirtuins and NAD+, which may slow down aging.[138] Here are more evidence-based benefits you may get from resveratrol:

  • Helps lower high blood pressure[139][140]
  • May help protect the brain, prevent cognitive decline[141][142
  • May help prevent and treat cancer[143][144]
  • May increase insulin sensitivity in diabetics[145][146]
  • May provide the more benefits for diabetics[147]:
    • Help lower blood sugar levels(activates AMPK)
    • Decreases inflammation 
    • Reduces oxidative stress 
  • May help increase exercise endurance[148]
  • May help improve heart health[149

Resveratrol Dosage: According to WebMD, resveratrol does not have any specific dosage recommendation. Most resveratrol supplements contain 250-250 mg per pill. However, to get the same dose in some studies, you would have to take 2 g or 2,000 mg or more per day.[150]

10. Multivitamins (Slightly Suggested)

2/5 on the Certainty Scale

Helps prevent vitamin deficiencies, may aid in protecting heart health

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Multivitamins

Multivitamin intake can help you avoid vitamin deficiencies that weaken your immune function.[151] Multivitamins may also help improve memory and lower the risk of developing aging-related diseases. However, a large study with 500,000 participants showed that daily multivitamins didn’t reduce risk of cancer, heart disease, or death in healthy people.[152] Another problem is the poor quality of many multivitamins, containing excessive or poor doses.[153] For these reasons, we gave multivitamins a 2 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Popular biohackers are also divided on the topic. Those who said multivitamins may do more harm than good include Steven Fowkes[16], Dr. Peter Attia[113], and Dave Asprey[15]. On the other hand, biohackers who believe in multivitamin baseline supplementation include Ray Kurzweil[14], Dr.Rhonda Patrick[17], Wim Hof[47], and Beth Greer[154]. Moreover, they only get supplements from high quality sources. Here are more evidence-based benefits of taking multivitamins:

  • May help prevent heart disease[155][156
  • Women – may lower risk of death from heart disease by 35%[157]
  • In men – may lower risk of cancer by 31%[158]
  • May help reduce risk of colon cancer[159][160]
  • May the lower risk of developing cataracts[161]
  • Can help improve memory in older adults[162][163]
  • Can help improve mood, reduces symptoms of depression[164][165]

Multivitamin Dosage: To calculate your daily recommended vitamin intake based on age, weight, and height, you can use this Dietary Reference Intake tool made by the USDA. Most multivitamins are taken once or twice a day. Be sure to follow the dosage instructions.

Bonus Drug #1: Metformin (Slightly Suggested)

2/5 on the Certainty Scale

Approved for testing as an anti-aging drug, may prevent age-related diseases

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Metformin

In 2016, metformin was approved for testing as an anti-aging drug, with potential to delay aging-related diseases.[166] Metformin mimics the effect of caloric restriction, something researchers observed could extend the lifespan of many organisms.[167] Used for over 50 years to treat diabetics, it helps lower blood sugar levels.[168] However, doctors warn against using metformin prematurely during its trial stages.[169] It’s not yet approved by the FDA. This gives it a 2 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Biohackers also seem divided on metformin. Biohackers who warn against the negative effects of metformin include Dave Asprey[170], Dr. Rhonda Patrick[171], Ben Greenfield[172], and Dominic D’Agostino[173]. Some of their worries include how metformin may reduce the body’s ability to absorb vitamin B-12, and inhibit mitochondrial adaptations for older adults. On the other hand, those who take it or mention its benefits include Ray Kurzweil[14](for diabetes), Dr. David Sinclair[174], Dr. Peter Attia[175], and Tim Ferriss[176]. Here are evidence-based benefits you may get from metformin:

  • Regulates blood sugar levels in diabetics[177][178]
  • Reduces oxidative stress and inflammation[179]
  • May help prevent cancer[180
  • May help reduce risk of heart disease in diabetics[181][182]
  • May help treat heart disease in non-diabetic patients[183]
  • May help treat obese and overweight patients[184]
  • Reduces effects of mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress[185]
  • May help reduce the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s[186][187]
  • Helps regulate blood sugar levels in non-diabetics[188]

Metformin Dosage: The FDA has not approved metformin as a supplement. However, longevity studies by Dr. Nir Barzilai gave 1,700 mg/day(1.7 g/day) to people with impaired glucose intolerance.[189] Dr. David Sinclair says he takes 1 g/day before bedtime.[190]

Bonus Drug #2: Rapamycin (Slightly Suggested)

2/5 on the Certainty Scale

Approved for human trials as anti-aging drug, may help prolong life

Supplements Used by Biohackers for Longevity - Rapamycin

Rapamycin is an mTOR inhibitor which helps improve function in the elderly.[191] It’s the first drug to extend the lifespan of mammals[192], with research to prolong lives of dogs[193], and human trials now approved by the FDA[194].Studies show inhibiting mTOR extends the lifespan of many species, and delays aging-related diseases in mice.[195] However, evidence also shows it may cause diabetes.[196] Moreover, researchers are not yet sure why rapamycin suppresses the immune system in organ transplants, and strengthens it in other contexts.[197] For these reasons, we gave it 2 out of 5 on our Certainty Scale.

Still, biohackers like Dr. David Sinclair[197], Dr. Peter Attia[198], and Dr. Rhonda Patrick[199] continue totalk about the benefits of rapamycin. It also helps restrict calories, which is observed to increase longevity. Here are more evidence-based benefits people may get from rapamycin:

  • Helps slow aging – acts as a calorie restrictor[200][201]
  • Prevents rejection of kidney transplants[202
  • Help reverse abnormal heart enlargement[203]
  • May help prevent and treat cancer[204]
  • May help treat age-related obesity[205]
  • May help prevent cognitive decline and Alzheimer’s[206][207]

Rapamycin Dosage:Some scientists have been reported to self-medicate[208], with biohackers like Dr. Peter Attia saying “2-5 mg every 5 to 7 days is probably the dosage sweet spot.”[198] However, the medical community advises against taking it until it has FDA approval for safety.

Get Tested to Find Out Exactly What Vitamins Your Body Lacks

Supplements Used by Biohackers - Medical Tests for Deficiencies

Exactly what supplements will make the most impact on your lifespan and health span is different for everyone. The most accurate way to know which vitamins and minerals you’re deficient in is to get a medical test. For example, genetic testing like 23AndMe combined with Dr. Rhonda Patrick’s genome analysis tool generates a comprehensive report of diseases and vitamin deficiencies you may be prone to. You can learn more about what tests are helpful to take here.

*Disclaimer: The content is purely informative and educational in nature, and should not be construed as medical advice. Please use the content only in consultation with an appropriate certified medical or healthcare professional.

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